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débarquement, 6 juin 44, normandie- d day communaute de noctambules
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LE DEBARQUEMENT DE NORMANDIE

“Les sanglots long, des violons, de l’automne, blessent mon coeur d’une langueur monotone…” (2 jours avant l’attaque, la BBC informe la résistance française de l’imminence du débarquement par la diffusion de ce vers d’un poème de Verlaine). Nous sommes à l’avant veille du jour le plus long…

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POURQUOI LE DEBARQUEMENT

1944, les troupes de l’Axe (Allemagne, Italie, Japon) contrôlent la presque totalité de l’Europe, un seul pays se défend encore bec et ongles contre les Nazis, l’Angleterre. De leur côté, les Etats-Unis vont en 1944 de succès en succès dans le Pacifique et les troupes alliées se battent en Afrique du Nord.

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Malgré un soutien américain, dès 1941, les troupes Russes souffrent face à l’armée Allemande. Staline souhaiterait voir une opération menée par les forces Alliées à l’ouest de l’Europe pour réduire le nombre de divisions allemandes qui se battent en URSS. Après de nombreuses discussions les Alliés choisissent d’ouvrir le front en France et donc en Normandie. La décision est prise, l’invasion se fera à partir de l’Angleterre.

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En 1942, au mois d’août, un test grandeur nature de débarquement sera organisé à Dieppe. Officiellement c’est une attaque pour installer une tête de pont à l’Ouest, officieusement, c’est un test du dispositif de la défene allemande. Cette attaque avait pour objectif de chronomètrer le temps de réaction de l’armée allemande. En août 1942, les Canadiens débarquent sur les côtes françaises, l’assaut est un désastre, près de 3 500 hommes sont tués ou fait prisonniers. Cependant, ce “sacrifice” servira aux Alliés dans l’étude du débarquement de Normandie.

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LE CHOIX DE LA NORMANDIE

Pourquoi avoir choisi la Normandie comme théâtre du débarquement ? Les côtes Bretonnes sont trop éloignées de l’Angleterre, les Pays-Bas, problème de terres inondées, les côtes belges ont des courants très forts et donc dangereuses et surtout on se souvient que les Allemands attendent les Alliés dans le Pas-de-Calais. De plus la Normandie est l’endroit où les Allemands attendent le moins un débarquement Allié ! L’opération sera nommée ” overlord .

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DEROULEMENT DU DEBARQUEMENT

Les conditions climatiques ne sont pas avec les Alliés, une tempête fait rage dans la mer de la Manche. Le 4 juin 1944, l’ordre de départ pour la Normandie est donné par Eisenhower. Les météorologues ont une certitude, envoyer des navires dans de telles conditions serait de la folie, l’ordre de départ est annulé et repoussé de 24 heures. De leur côté, les Allemands sont rassurés et persuadés que les Alliés ne débarqueront pas par un pareil temps. le 5 juin, une éclaircie s’annonce dans la manche et Eisenhower prend sa décision et prononce cette phrase restée célèbre : ” OK, Let’s Go ! “

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L’OPERATION MARITIME

L’Armada la plus importante de l’histoire comporte environ 5 000 navires de toutes sortes, navires de guerre, transports de troupes, vedettes, cuirassés… Ils sont protégés par des ballons captifs qui empêchent les avions ennemis de voler en rase-motte. Un seul navire sera coulé avant le débarquement, le Svener, (bateau Norvégien). Il sera torpillé par une vedette rapide allemande (S-boote) qui patrouillait dans la Manche et qui s’est enfui immédiatement. A l’aube du 6 juin 1944, les Alliés débarquent sur les 5 plages au nom de code de Utah Beach, Omaha Beach (Américains), Golg Beach, Juno Beach et Sword Beach où débarquent les anglo-canadiens. Toutes les plages sont conquises dans les minutes qui suivent l’assaut sauf à Omaha Beach où les Américains sont cloués au sol par l’armée allemande. Ca ne sera qu’en début d’après-midi que la plage sera conquise.

Le prix à payer pour la conquête de ces plages est une perte de 3 000 soldats tués, disparus ou prisonniers dont 2 500 à Omaha Beach. Le soutien aérien et l’artillerie navale ont permis de remplir la plus grande partie des objectifs.

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CONSEQUENCES DU DEBARQUEMENT

CONSEQUENCES IMMEDIATES

Les Allemands sont surpris par ce débarquement en Normandie, l’armée allemande l’attendait dans le Pas-de-Calais. Les Alliés profitent de cet assaut pour installer une tête de pont avec des régiments qui arrivent en renfort, la Bataille de Normandie vient de débuter. Un pipe-line sous-marin est installé entre les côtes normandes et l’Angleterre qui alimentera les Alliés en carburant. Parallèlement de violents combats s’engagent à Cherbourg pour la possession du port en eau profonde.

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CONSEQUENCES DANS LES MOIS SUIVANTS

Le front Russe se dégarnit, effectivement les troupes allemandes sont envoyées en renfort vers la Normandie. Les soviétiques en profitent pour faire reculer les troupes allemandes. Il faut toujours avoir à l’esprit que le Reich est toujours persuadé que l’offensive en Normandie reste une diversion et que le véritable débarquement aura lieu dans le Pas-de-Calais où restent cantonnés 150 000 hommes. Cette erreur sera fatale pour l’armée allemande. La libération de la France peut s’engager, Paris sera libéré en août et les Alliés atteindront le Rhin à la fin de l’hiver 1944.

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Le débarquement de Normandie est un tournant de la seconde guerre mondiale.

Olivier

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