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ftp, (File Transfer Protocol)- c'est quoi ? communaute de noctambules
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TRANSFERT DE FICHIERS

Introduction au protocole FTP

Le protocole FTP (File Transfer Protocol) est, comme son nom l’indique, un protocole de transfert de fichier.
La mise en place du protocole FTP date de 1971, date à laquelle un mécanisme de transfert de fichiers (décrit dans le RFC 141) entre les machines du MIT (Massachussetts Institute of Technology) avait été mis au point. De nombreux RFC ont ensuite apporté des améliorations au protocole de base, mais les plus grandes innovations datent de juillet 1973.
Le protocole FTP est actuellement défini par le RFC 959 (File Transfer Protocol (FTP) - Specifications).

Le rôle du protocole FTP
Le protocole FTP définit la façon selon laquelle des données doivent être transférées sur un réseau TCP/IP.

Le protocole FTP a pour objectifs de :

* permettre un partage de fichiers entre machines distantes,
* permettre une indépendance aux systèmes de fichiers des machines clientes et serveur,
* permettre de transférer des données de manière efficace.

Le modèle FTP
Le protocole FTP s’inscrit dans un modèle client-serveur, c’est-à-dire qu’une machine envoie des ordres (le client) et que l’autre attend des requêtes pour effectuer des actions (le serveur).

Lors d’une connexion FTP, deux canaux de transmission sont ouverts :

* Un canal pour les commandes (canal de contrôle),
* Un canal pour les données.

ftp.JPG
Ainsi, le client comme le serveur possèdent deux processus permettant de gérer ces deux types d’information :

* le DTP (Data Transfer Process) est le processus chargé d’établir la connexion et de gérer le canal de données. Le DTP côté serveur est appelé SERVER-DTP, le DTP côté client est appelé USER-DTP,
* le PI (Protocol Interpreter) est l’interpréteur de protocole permettant de commander le DTP à l’aide des commandes reçues sur le canal de contrôle. Il est différent sur le client et sur le serveur :
o Le SERVER-PI est chargé d’écouter les commandes provenant d’un USER-PI sur le canal de contrôle sur un port donné, d’établir la connexion pour le canal de contrôle, de recevoir sur celui-ci les commandes FTP de l’USER-PI, d’y répondre et de piloter le SERVER-DTP,
o Le USER-PI est chargé d’établir la connexion avec le serveur FTP, d’envoyer les commandes FTP, de recevoir les réponses du SERVER-PI et de contrôler le USER-DTP si besoin.

Lors de la connexion d’un client FTP à un serveur FTP, le USER-PI initie la connexion au serveur selon le protocole Telnet. Le client envoie des commandes FTP au serveur, ce dernier les interprète, pilote son DTP, puis renvoi une réponse standard. Lorsque la connexion est établie, le serveur-PI donne le port sur lequel les données seront envoyées au Client DTP. Le client DTP écoute alors sur le port spécifié les données en provenance du serveur.
Il est important de remarquer que, les ports de contrôle et de données étant des canaux séparés, il est possible d’envoyer les commandes à partir d’une machine et de recevoir les données sur une autre. Ainsi, il est par exemple possible de transférer des données entre deux serveurs FTP en passant par un client pour envoyer les instructions de contrôle et en transférant les informations entre deux processus serveurs connectés sur le bon port.

ftp1.JPG

Dans cette configuration, le protocole impose que les canaux de contrôle restent ouverts pendant tout le transfert de données. Ainsi un serveur peut arrêter une transmission si le canal de contrôle est coupé lors de la transmission.

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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/10/d212871047/htdocs/wp-content/plugins/math-comment-spam-protection/math-comment-spam-protection.classes.php on line 77

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