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11 novembre 1918, grande guerre communaute de noctambules
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UN ARMISTICE MET FIN A LA GRANDE GUERRE

Le lundi 11 novembre 1918, à 11 heures, dans toute la France, les cloches sonnent à la volée. Au front, les clairons bondissent sur les parapets et sonnent le «Cessez-le-Feu», «Levez-vous», «Au Drapeau». La «Marseillaise» jaillit à pleins poumons des tranchées. Même soulagement en face, dans le camp allemand.
Rendons hommage aux poilus, ces hommes qui au péril de leur vie ont combattu l’ennemi et ont gagné celle que l’on appelait à l’époque “La Der des Der”. Pour la première fois depuis quatre ans, Français et Allemands peuvent se regarder sans s’entretuer.

Français et Allemands peuvent se regarder sans s’entretuer. Un armistice a été conclu le matin entre les Alliés et l’Allemagne, dernière des Puissances Centrales à rendre les armes. Il laisse derrière lui huit millions de morts et six millions de mutilés. Les survivants ont perdu la foi dans les valeurs morales et spirituelles qui ont fait la grandeur et l’unité de l’Europe. Mais ils veulent croire que cette guerre qui s’achève restera la dernière de l’Histoire.

Défaite inéluctable de l’Allemagne

Dès l’échec de leur contre-offensive de juillet 1918, les Allemands ont compris qu’ils n’avaient plus aucun espoir d’arracher la victoire.
Les troupes américaines, potentiellement fortes de quatre millions d’hommes, arrivent en renfort des Anglais et des Français. Le 3 octobre, convaincu de l’inéluctabilité de la défaite, l’empereur Guillaume II nomme chancelier le prince Max de Bade, un modéré dont il espère qu’il saura obtenir des conditions de paix convenables de la part des Alliés.
Les Puissances Centrales se délitent.
L’Allemagne bascule dans l’anarchie et la guerre civile.

Un armistice mal accepté

Les militaires s’étant défaussés, c’est à un civil, Matthias Erzberger, que revient la pénible tâche de négocier l’armistice.
En France, la demande d’armistice fait débat. Le président de la République Raymon Poincaré et le général Philippe Pétain voudraient profiter de l’avantage militaire pour chasser les Allemands de Belgique, envahir l’Allemagne elle-même et signifier à celle-ci l’étendue de sa défaite.
Mais le généralissime des troupes alliées, Ferdinand Foch, et le chef du gouvernement, Georges Clemenceau, ne croient pas l’armée française capable de se battre encore longtemps et souhaitent en finir au plus vite. L’armistice est signé dans le wagon spécial du généralissime Foch, au carrefour de Rethondes, au milieu de la forêt de Compiègne, le 11 novembre à 5h15 du matin.
Les Français ne manquent pas de noter que ce jour est la fête du saint patron de leur pays, Saint Martin.
Les Allemands se voient soumettre des «conditions » sans aucune marge de négociation:
- Ils doivent livrer l’essentiel de leur armement, de leur aviation et de leur flotte de guerre.
- Leur armée est sommée d’évacuer sous 30 jours la rive gauche du Rhin (en Allemagne même !) ainsi que trois têtes de pont sur la rive droite, Coblence, Cologne et Mayence.
L’armistice est conclu pour 36 jours mais sera régulièrement renouvelé jusqu’au traité de paix du 28 juin 1919.

Amertume des vaincus

La demande d’armistice étant venue des représentants civils et non militaires de l’Allemagne, ces derniers échappent à l’infâmie de la défaite. À Berlin, les représentants de la jeune République accueillent les combattants en ces termes: «Soldats qui revenez invaincus»
Dans les mois qui suivent l’armistice, les généraux Ludendorff et Hindenburg attribuent avec aplomb la défaite militaire à un «coup de poignard dans le dos» de la part des politiciens et des bourgeois cosmopolites. L’expression est reprise avec ferveur par les Allemands meurtris et humiliés. Elle va faire le lit des partis ultranationalistes, dont le parti nazi.

C’est ainsi que se termina la « Der des Ders », dont l’horreur resta longtemps présente dans les esprits. Elle coûta à la France près de 10% de sa population masculine, faisant de la France, avec ses 1,4 millions de morts, le pays proportionnellement le plus meurtri. Une guerre que plus personne ne voulait voir revenir. Ce qui n’empêcha pas à Ferdinand Foch, le signataire de Rethondes, de dire en 1920 : « Ce n’est pas une paix, c’est un armistice de 20 ans » A bon entendeur, aurait pu t’on dire à l’époque …

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Strict Standards: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Berlin' for 'CEST/2.0/DST' instead in /homepages/10/d212871047/htdocs/wp-content/plugins/math-comment-spam-protection/math-comment-spam-protection.classes.php on line 77

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